The International Football Association Board (IFAB) is tasked with the responsibility of maintaining soccer rules and regulations and making updates annually.
IFAB consists of 8 board members – four board members, are from FIFA while the other four members come from England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and Wales.
FIFA’s rule book is very extensive with over 130 pages, which is why we found it important to prepare a comprehensive summary of the laws of the game, ideal for soccer players who are just getting started with this beautiful game. This simplified version will assist you in learning the laws of the game.
The International Football Association Board (IFAB) currently has 17 laws of soccer in place. These laws must be observed in all professional and international soccer matches. Let us look at the laws of the game.
Law 1: The Field of Play
Soccer can be played on either a grass field or a surface covered by artificial turf. Soccer games must, however, be played on a surface that is green in color.
The soccer field must have a rectangular shape, with two distinct short goal lines and two distinct long-touch lines.
A halfway line, which is a straight line connecting the midpoints of the two touchlines, divides the field into halves.
At the midpoint of the halfway line, there is a marked center point that is enclosed by a lined center circle. The lined center circle has a radius of 10 yards.
During kickoff, players from the non-possessing team are not allowed to enter the lined center circle. The touch lines must have a greater length than the goal lines.
Regulations On Lengths
Touchline: The touch lines must have a minimum length of 100 yards and a maximum length of 130 yards
Touchline: The touch lines must have a minimum length of 100 yards and a maximum length of 130 yards
The goal area: The length of the goal area is 6 yards from each goal post measured along the goal line. The width of the goal area is 6 yards measured perpendicular to the goal line and out into the field.
A 5-foot high corner flag is planted every corner of the soccer field.
Law 2: The Ball
A soccer ball must have a spherical shape. It must also be made of leather or other comparable materials.
The circumference of a soccer ball must be between 68 and 70 cm (about 22 cm in diameter).
The weight of a soccer ball must be between 410 and 450 grams, and it should be inflated to a pressure in the range of 0.6 to 1.1 standard atmospheres at sea level.
However, this rule regarding size is only applicable in officially sanctioned matches.
Youth leagues often use smaller balls that are more suitable for younger players.
Law 3: The Number Of Players
Generally, soccer matches are played by two opposing teams of 11 players each. The 11 players include the goalkeeper.
A scheduled match must be forfeited if a team does not have seven or more players ready to play at match time.
In youth leagues, it is quite common to have teams of fewer than 11 players on each side – coaches use smaller teams as a developmental strategy.
In FIFA-sanctioned matches, the number of substitutions is usually limited to 3 per match (3 substitutions for each team), except in friendly matches.
In most youth leagues, an unlimited number of substitutions is allowed. The substitutions must, however, be listed on listed on the game card before the match begins or those players will be ineligible.
Substitutions may only enter the field at the halfway line, after the referee’s approval and the subbed player having left the pitch.
During a game stoppage, the goalkeeper can be subbed with any player on the pitch or any eligible substitute player on the bench.
Law 4: The Players’ Equipment
All soccer players must wear a jersey, shorts, cleats, shin guards and socks. The socks should cover the shin guards completely.
A referee may make a judgment on a player’s equipment, and if they deem it unsatisfactory, the referee can send off the player until the issue is fixed.
Law 5: The Referee
The referee has all the authority on the field, and water they say is law. If a player questions the referee’s decisions, they can be subjected to further disciplinary measures simply for dissenting.
The Referee’s Powers
Law 6: The Assistant Referees
The assistant referees’ primary responsibility is to assist the referee in the performance of their duties – this includes using their flag to signal when the ball goes out off play, when there is a foul, or when there is an offside situation.
Law 7: The Duration of the Match
A soccer match is played for two 45-minute halves, and extra time can be added to each half at the referee’s discretion. A half-time period of not more than 15 minutes separates the halves.
The extra time added for each half generally corresponds, in the referee’s own opinion, to the time taken up by substitutions and injuries.
The amount of extra time must be announced and clearly displayed at the half line when the regular 45-minute period ends.
Soccer does not have a specified time limit, and it is up to the referee to decide on when to end a match.
Law 8: The Start and Restart of Play
Kick-off is usually determined by tossing a coin, whereby the winning team either chooses to start the ball or choose the goal they will attack.
The losing team takes the other option that the winning team did not pick. Kick-off occurs when starting each half, and after every goal that is scored.
All kickoffs are taken at the midpoint of the halfway line. When a team scores a goal, the kick-off is given to the opposing team so that they restart the match.
Law 9: The Ball in and Out of Play
The ball is considered to have gone out of play if it completely crosses any of the goal lines or touchlines.
The ball is also considered out of play when the referee stops play for whatever reason.
The ball is still in play if, for instance, it strikes the goal frame or the referee but remains within the goal lines and touchlines.
Law 10: The Method Of Scoring
A goal is scored when the soccer ball entirely crosses the goal line and within the frame of the goal.
When the match ends, the team with the higher number of goals is the winner, eliminating the necessity for extra time.
Law 11: Offside
If an attacking player receives a ball while they are on the opposing team’s half, they must be on the same line or behind the second last defender (the last defender is usually the goalkeeper). Note that this rule only applies if the player is involved with the play.
Law 12: Fouls and Misconduct
Misconduct that leads to an award of a direct free kick
If a player commits the mentioned fouls while in their team's penalty box, the opposing side is awarded a penalty kick.
If a player commits the following, an indirect kick is awarded.
Yellow cards serve as a caution or warning to players. Yellow cards can be issued for such offenses as
When a player receives a red card, they should immediately leave the field of play. Red cards can be issued for such offenses as
Some offenses may attract disciplinary actions by relevant soccer authorities even after the match is over.
Law 13: Free Kicks
There are two kinds of free kicks – direct free kicks and indirect free kicks.
With a direct free kick, players are allowed to shoot directly into the opponent’s goals without the ball being required to touch another player.
A direct free kick is taken from the point where the foul occurred, unless the foul occurred within the fouled team’s goal area, in which case the fouled team can take the kick from any point within the goal area.
Opponents must be 10 yards away from the ball until the kicker plays the ball. The ball is considered to be in play once the kicker has moved it.
However, if the direct kick was taken from within the fouled team’s penalty area, the ball becomes in play when it passes directly beyond the penalty area.
An indirect kick is taken from the point where the infringement occurred, except in situations where the foul was committed within the awarded team’s goal area, whereby the indirect kick may be taken from any point within the goal area.
The referee raises his hand during an indirect kick, to indicate the kick. An indirect kick must be subsequently touched by another player before entering the goal. If it does not touch another player but goes into the goal, that goal is declared void.
The ball is in play as soon as the kicker moves it, except in situations where the kick was taken from within the penalty area of the awarded team, in which case the ball becomes in play when it has entirely left the penalty area.
The ball has to be stationary both for a direct and an indirect kick.
Law 14: The Penalty Kick
Penalty kicks are awarded if a defensive player fouls an attacking player within the defensive player’s penalty box, or when a defensive player commits a handball in their team’s penalty area.
In a penalty kick, a player from the side which was awarded the penalty kick is allowed to take a single on-goal shot while only the opposing team’s goalkeeper defends the kick.
During a penalty kick, the soccer ball is placed at the penalty spot (the penalty mark is 12 yards from the goal line, and it is at the midpoint of the two touchlines).
During the penalty shot, all players on both teams (except the defensive goalkeeper and the kicker) must remain outside of the penalty area but within the field of play.
The players must be behind the penalty mark, and not less than 10 yards from the penalty mark. Players are allowed to enter the penalty box once the penalty shot has been taken.
The goalkeeper can make lateral movements along the goal line before the penalty shot is taken, but they are not allowed to come off the goal line until the shot is taken.
The assistant referee handling the goal line where the penalty kick is taking place stands at the point where the penalty area and the goal line intersect and stays alert looking for any infringements or valid scores.
Law 15: The Throw-In
A throw-in is awarded when the team with ball possession plays a ball that goes out of bounds over the touchline. The throw-in must be taken near the point where the ball crossed the touchline.
The throw-in is given to the opponents of the player that last made contact with the ball when it went out of bounds.
Opposing players are allowed to stand at any distance from the throwing player as long as it is not closer than 2 m (2.2 yards) from the thrower, and they must still be on the designated field of play.
The thrower may take the throw-in at a point that is farther back from the touchline. The thrower must face the designated playing field at the moment of making the throw.
The player should throw the ball using both hands, from behind and over the head. The ball is considered in play immediately it enters the field.
The player who takes the throw-in has to release the ball with both hands simultaneously while keeping both feet planted on the ground.
If the player who takes the throw-in does not observe these conditions, the play is stopped, and a throw-in is awarded to the opposing team.
The player taking the throw-in is not allowed to throw the ball directly to the goal and score.
Law 16: The Goal Kick
A goal kick is given when the offensive side plays, and the ball goes out of bounds over the defensive team’s goal line (either on the ground or in the air). The last person to touch the ball has to be from the offensive team.
After the referee declares the ball out of play, the defender or goalkeeper places the ball at any position within the goal box and the kicks the ball back into play.
Also, a goal kick is awarded to the defense team when a ball is played directly into the goal, with the last person to touch it being from the attacking team, and from a situation where scoring an attacking goal directly is not permitted. These situations are
Law 17: The Corner Kick
A corner kick is given to the offensive team when a player from the defensive team plays the ball out of bounds over their team’s goal line.
The ball must have been last touched by a player of the defensive team. A player from the offensive team kicks the ball from within the corner area and back into play.
The kick must be taken from the corner area nearest to where the ball left the designated field. With a corner kick, players are allowed to score directly off the corner kick.
The assistant referee signals that a corner kick should be awarded by first raising their flag, then using the flag to point at the corner are on the side of the pitch they are in.
Note that this is not an indication of where the corner kick should be taken from. The referee will then award the corner kick by pointing to the arc where the kick will be taken from.
The corner arc is at the point where the goal line and the touchline intersect and has a radius of one yard.
All defending players must be positioned not less than 10 yards from the corner arc until the kicker makes the corner kick. A corner kick is considered taken when the kicker moves the ball.
How to Play the Game
To be able to play this game successfully, you must gain some valuable skills. Soccer is an array of skills
The first skill you need is to learn how to kick the ball. Kicking the ball is an essential skill that a soccer player must possess.
A good player should be able to handle the ball in any direction. Learning how to kick with both feet without falling over is also a skill.
Sometimes a pass is critical, and this skill is necessary for a good player. Practice kicking a stationary ball as much as possible.
Dribbling is a skill that involves controlling the ball with your feet while running with it. A good player has to learn how to dribble when passing the ball to other players from your team.
If you have poor passing and dribbling skills, you can cost your side when your opponents possess the ball. The players are supposed to rehearse often to master the skills to improve their chances of winning.
A good player who can dribble can be able to make great passes all through the field and finally to the striker. Dribbling makes up for the best part of the game.
You need to learn how to serve/throw-in the ball. When the ball gets out of the pitch, a player must throw the ball to other players. The throw must be made by the opposing team that did not kick the ball outside the field.
Many times, touching the football is not allowed for players in the field once the match kicks off. A good throw allows your teammates to possess the ball and eventually score.
A goalkeeper is a player who holds the fort while ensuring the ball does not go into the goal post. The goalkeeper must have excellent skills like predicting what side the ball will pass.
The keeper also has to give the shot to the best dribbler in the field who will be able to take it to the opponent’s side.
The goalkeeper also must be able to perform high kicks that can cut across the whole football pitch. A good goalkeeper must work to protect their goal post by all means. They must also learn to avoid serious mistakes that can cost their team. Such as leaving their goal post unguarded.
How To Identify Your Place In The Field
Getting to know what position you play better will take some time. For instance, you can only practice goalkeeping to know for sure if you can do it best. Many people often start in the field where they notice that they can do something more.
Midfielders and strikers also know their place through numerous trials. A good coach can help you realize what place you fit best. Practicing will also help you see what position excites you most.
A good footballer knows their place. They have a ton of skills up their sleeves to ensure they stay ahead in the game.
A part that would suit you best is a place where you can freely execute your plans and show off your special skills. Being outstanding in soccer requires endless practice to hone the skills. You also have to specialize in something. You cannot do any part just because you love the game.
Picking an area helps you grow your skills as you do not waste time in so many other places — something like striking needs a lot of practice and skills.
You must learn how to play around with kicking the ball in different angles and aiming at great spots where you will most likely score.
What Other Skills Do You Need In The Field?
Running: Football is all about your ability to chase the ball for the whole 90 minutes. You need to practice by playing a full-time game. You can also do running exercises that will give you the stamina to be able to withstand all the running.
The time spent in the field is a lot. All this time, you will not have a minute to rest unless you are injured and taken out of the area. Each player is equally engaged in the field throughout.
Passing Skills: For you to give the ball, you must have a great eye that spots the best player to receive the ball. A wrong pass can hand over the ball to your opponents. Great eye for the players who can take the shot requires you to be keen.
A good player must be cautious and mindful of his teammates when passing the ball. Quick response is also valuable as many times; your opponents will be waiting to take the shot from your possession. Practice will help you attain this skill.
Even though FIFA publishes precise soccer rules, national and regional leagues often modify these rules for various reasons.
It is therefore essential that you correspond with your coach or league manager regarding any deviations from FIFA’s established set of rules.
If you are passionate about the game, you can start training and prepare for a brighter, happier and healthier future. With the rules in hand, playing soccer will be bliss. They will assist you to stay out of trouble.
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Last update on 2019-11-13 / This post contains affiliate links. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API